When I find something interesting and new, I post it here - that's mostly programming, of course, not everything.

Monday, November 30, 2009

Subclass and Subtype in Java

Here I just want to get together a pretty much widely-known information; somehow it escapes you if you just read Java books or google the internets. And what I was looking for was an example (hence a proof) that subclassing in Java is not always subtyping, or some kind of proof that it is.

I am talking specifically about the state of affairs in Java. We may try to do the same trick in Scala; my point here though was to have a real-life, although contrived, example of how subclassing is different from subtyping, and Java is a easy target.

First, definitions (informal, as well as the rest of this post).

Types in Java.
Java has the following kinds of types:
  • primitive (e.g. char)
  • null
  • interfaces (declared with interface keyword)
  • classes (declared with class keyword)
  • array (declared with [square brackets])
  • type variables (used in generics)

Subclassing: declaring one class to be a subclass of another (class ... extends ...) - this allows a subclass to inherit functionality from its superclass

Subtyping: A is a subtype of B if an instance of A can be legally placed in a context where an instance of B is required. The understanding of "legally" may vary.

Many sources state firmly that in Java, a subclass is always a subtype. Opinions that a subclass is not always a subtype are also widespread; and that's obviously true for some languages: Self type is a good source of subclass not being a subtype confusion; we do not have Self type in Java.

In Java 5 a covariant return type inheritance was added: if class A has a method that returns X, and its subclass B declares a method with the same name and parameter list (meaning, parameter types), and returning a subclass of X, then this method overrides the method in A.

In addition to this, arrays are also covariant: if A is a subtype of B, then A[], in Java, is a subtype of B[].

This last feature allows us to create an example showing that no! Subclasses in Java are not always subtypes! See:

public class Subtyping
interface A
A[] m();
void accept(A a);

interface B extends A // subtype of A

public static void main(String[] args) {
A a = new AImpl(); // see AImpl below
B b = new BImpl(); // see BImpl below
// now note that B is a subtype of A.
a.accept(a); // this works; substitution is trivial
b.accept(a); // this works too (substitution is trivial too)
a.accept(b); // oops, this fails! b, being a subtype of a, is not accepted at runtime

static class AImpl implements A {
public A[] m()
return new A[]{this};

public void accept(A a)
a.m()[0] = this;

static class BImpl extends AImpl implements B{
public B[] m()
return new B[]{this};

So there, this code demonstrates a subclass that is not legally a subtype. By 'legally' here I mean that the code always throws a Java runtime exception without adding any client precondition predicates.

Here's a good discussion of this issue:

public boolean lspHolds(Object o) {
return o.toString().contains("@");

Monday, November 16, 2009

Not Just Subtyping

I've been trying to figure out how come the only relationship between types we use to encounter is "sub". Type a is a subtype of type b. Validated by subsitution principle.

If we limit ourselves with "sub", we'll have infinite arguments on whether a square can be considered as a subtype of rectangle; whether a colored-point can be considered a subtype of point; whether an int can be considered, under certain conditions, as a subtype of float; whether, in Java, if A implements B, A is a subtype of B. Opinions differ.

I think we should look deeper and maybe consider this case by case.

  1. Is square a rectangle? Seems so; the objection being that when we start stretching the rectangle, not every square remains a rectangle. Modification is a weird thing. Even in simple cases, i = 1, then (i == 1) becomes true; but it is not actually true, because next moment i = 2, and the expression is false. No temporal logic transforms true into false, there's something wrong there. But if we discard modification, we can state this: each square 'is a' rectangle. We have an injection. Two different squares treated as rectangles remain different.
  2. Is colored-point a point? This is a totally different case. The world of colored-points is different from the world of points: it is bigger. Yes, a colored-point can be used instead of a point in a substitution. So, in a sense, it 'is a' point. But two different colored-points can become the same point if we forget about their color. Each point 'is a' projection of a colored-point, and eachcolored-point can be treated as a point. So what we have here is a projection here.
  3. Let's try to implement an unordered-pair. We can do it by taking a pair type and then defining equality in such a way that (a, b) == (b, a). Again, we have a projection, but in this case we went the other way around: not building a new type by adding a dimension, but discovered a new type by defining an equivalence relationship between pairs. So what we have here is a factorization.
  4. In the case of int -> float, we have a more general case. Not all operations are preserved; not all floats come from ints, and not all two different ints map to two different floats. Still, it is a legal type transformation, done usually by default, called coercion.
  5. In Java-like languages, if a class implements an interface, it thus declares that it can be used in any context where the interface is required. It projects itself into the realm of the given interface, and that's all we know; the "true nature" of the class implementing an interface remains obscure.
  6. In the context of 5., the Java keyword "extends" is meaningless. That is, in reality it has many meanings: "borrows the functionality", "implements the same set of interfaces", "has access to internal namespace". Non of this has anything to do with types relationships.
  7. 'is a' actually has many meanings too. We probably never can be sure whether A 'is a' B: we should always ask: "in which contexts" (that is, "what do you mean?"). If we look at this:
the pyramid here is neither a square nor a triangle. But when projected, it can be percieved as one. If we say "he's a soldier", it does not mean that's all the person is; what we mean is just a projection.

So, how about substitution? We can substitute A with B if we know the mapping that maps B into the context where A should be present. If we are talking about coercion (and we know that an int is not a subtype of float), for instance, we can substitute a float with an int value if coercion is legal. In this and other cases, our ability to substitute means we know a canonical mapping.

Now examples.

  1. Injection. Take types A and B; build A+B, a union. Some languages support unions, some don't. Some support them implicitly, like Scala with its case classes. By definition, there are canonical inclusions from A and B into A+B; so it would be logical to call A and B subtypes of A+B.
  2. Projection. Take types A and B, and their product, A×B. One can represent A×B as the type of pairs (a, b), with a of type A and b of type B. There are two projections from A×B to A and B. Neither A nor B can be seriously called a subtype of A×B, of course. They can be considered as a special case of factor-types. Below is another example of factor-type.
  3. Surjection. Given A×A, a type of pairs (a1, a2), we can build a type of unordered pairs by equalizing (a1, a2) with (a2, a1). This gives us an equivalence relationship, and a projection from A×A to A×A /2, the type of unordered pairs.
  4. Enum surjection. Suppose we build an enum class for Rainbow. It turns out in different cultures the number of colors is different. In China, Japan, Russia, there are seven colors, while in some other countries (US for instance) there are 6. Two colors, light-blue and dark-blue, in Asian rainbow, both map to just blue in US rainbow. So every time we pass a US rainbow instance to a function, we can as well coerce an Asian rainbow ("substitute") into US version, using the standard mapping. It is similar to projection, where the receiving side has no clue about the hidden multiplicity of possible parameter values.

In computer science there is a variety of terms that are supposed to denote this variety of "-typing", but somehow they either are all called kinds of subtyping or declared not to belong to the "-typing" realm. I suggest to apply pretty simple categorical notions, so that things just look simpler and more manageable.

Monday, August 31, 2009

a sample comonad

Comonads still look a little bit enigmatic to programmers; I'm going to show a practical example from which one can start perceiving the notion.

First, definition. A comonad is dual to monad; which may or may not be a good explanation. So, okay, a formal definition.

A comonad is a functor T: AA

εx: T(x) → x


Δx: T(x) → T(T(x))

together with three conditions similar to monadic conditions:

a) For Δx: T(x) → T(T(x)) and εT(x): T(T(x)) → T(x) we should have εT(x) ° Δx = IdT(x)

b) For Δx: T(x) → T(T(x)) and T(εx): T(T(x)) → T(x) we should have T(εx) ° Δx = IdT(x)

c) For Δx: T(x) → T(T(x)), ΔT(x): T(T(x)) → T(T(T(x))), T(Δx): T(T(x)) → T(T(T(x))) we should have T(Δx) ° Δx = ΔT(x) ° Δx

Here's a nice compact comonad implementation in Haskell; I hope the author won't mind my quoting the code:

class Functor w => Comonad w where
extract :: w a -> a
duplicate :: w a -> w (w a)
extend :: (w a -> b) -> w a -> w b

So, in this notation, the axioms will look like this:

extract . duplicate == id
fmap extract . duplicate == id
duplicate . duplicate == fmap duplicate . duplicate

The author of the code also specifies axioms for extend, but I find it superfluous; it is enough to have functoriality and the comonad laws actually.

I wanted to bring a good example of comonad. Here how one could be produced.

If we have a monoid M, we can have a comonad of functions from a given M to sets. A monoid is a... okay, a set that has associative multiplication and unit defined: 1: → M, m: M×M → M, such that m(a, 1) = m(1, a) = a.

So, let's take the functor which to each set X maps a set of functions from a given monoid M to X. It is known to be a functor; now, how come functions from a monoid to a set form a comonad? I would not go into details here, and will just demonstrate how we have a comonadic structure for one specific monoid, ℕ, the monoid of natural numbers: [0..∞).

So what we have is a functor that, given a set X, builds the set of all sequences in X. I plan to demonstrate that this functor is a comonad.

X ↦ {(x0, x1, ...)}

We need to define εX (extract and Δx (duplicate).

εX can be defined like this: εX(x0,...) is x0;

Why so? A general definition of extract for the case of monoid is taking f(0) for a function f: M → X (a composition 1 → M → X ).

and Δx can be defined like this: Δx(xi,j) = xi+j

Again, this is because T(T(X)) in our case is the set of functions M → M → X, which is equivalent to the set of functions from M×M → X. For each f: M → X we can define M×M → M → X by composing the monoid multiplication (which is addition if we are talking about natural numbers) and f.

Or, in other words, duplicate (x0, x1, ...} == ((x0, x1, ...), (x1, x2, ...), ...); (extract . duplicate) (x0, x1, ...) will return the first element, (x0, x1, ...), that is, it is the same as id.

If we apply fmap extract to ((x0, x1, ...), (x1, x2, ...), ...), we will get a sequence of first elements of each sequence, that is, again, (x0, x1, ...).


In my view, Haskell community, probably for the sake of being closer to the people, oversimplifies IO.

In my view, while output is a monad, input can be interpreted as a comonad. When a machine is taking input, it has no control over external environment, it just consumes; the input acts on the machine. To make the input comonad look like a monad, the authors use tricks, forcing the whole evaluation happen inside not the main Haskell category, but its image under a certain functor... but I don't think this is the right place and time to discuss adjoint functors here.

Tuesday, June 23, 2009

Why Monoids?

I sincerely plan to explain in simple terms what's all this fuss about monoids, why we suddenly need these primitive structures, and how to make them available in Java.

A monoid is one of the simplest notions of algebra. Slightly oversimplifying, it consists of elements that have a multiplication operation a*b defined on them, and a neutral element e, such that e*a == a*e. Multiplication should be associative (a*b)*c == a*(b*c), but not necessarily commutative (a*b != b*a). If you can't imagine non-commutative multiplication, think of matrices... or of spatial rotations. The order counts.

A simpler example would consist of integer numbers and addition playing the role of multiplication. 0 is the neutral element with respect to addition, so there.

Now why would we need this structure? It turned out that if you have to add up a billion, or a quadrillion of integers, you may be interested in doing it by distributing the operation over several (or ~700 000, in the case of Google) machines. Adding up a quadrillion of integers may be not that interesting; but multiplying a billion of matrices is a different, and more challenging, story.

And why can we distribute it among the thousands of computers? We can do it all thanks to the associativity. (m1*m2*...*mk1*mk1+1*mk1+2..*mk2*...*mn) is the same as
(m1*m2*...*mk1)*(mk1+1*mk1+2..*mk2)*(...*mn), and we can calculate intermediate results (shown in parentheses here) on different machines, then aggregating them together; we can do it in cascade, whatever we choose. The strategy does not influence the result.

The following Java class defines, or rather declares the necessary functionality:
public abstract class Monoid<X>
abstract X unit();
abstract X m(X x, X y);

public X fold(Iterable<X> source) {
X result = unit();
for (X x : source) {
result = m(result, x);
return result;

public X fold(X[] source) {
X result = unit();
for (X x : source) {
result = m(result, x);
return result;
We can use it to add numbers, strings, matrices; to multiply numbers or matrices; to concatenate lists and join sets.
Monoid<Set<T>> setMonoid = new Monoid<Set<T>> {
public Set<T> unit() {
return Set<T>.EMPTY;

public Set<T> m(Set<T> a, Set<T> b) {
Set<T> c = a.clone();
return c;
Of course using all this for the data that we have in memory of one single machine. But, as I said before, we can actually delegate the monoid's fold operation to the computing cloud, and have the list deployed somewhere in the big file system, and let the cloud partition it. The result will be the same; and all this due to the monoidal properties of our concrete classes and operations.

Sunday, June 14, 2009

on Variance

I'll try to explain to practicing programmers what this variance means, and how it is related to the famous and frequently misunderstood "Liskov principle".

Say we have the following types: A, B, A1 and B1, where A1 is a subtype of A, and B1 is a subtype of B. In Java it would look like this:

class A {

class A1 extends A {

class B {

class B1 extends B {

Now let's build a class of pairs:

class Pair<X, Y> {
X first;
Y second;

If we compare Pair<A, B> ab; and Pair<A1, B1> a1b1; we see that it is natural to expect that a1b1 should be assignable to ab, but not vice versa: the components can be cast in one direction only. A1 is a specialization of A; B1 is specialization of B, and so the Pair<A1,B1> is a specialization of Pair<A,B>. This is what is called covariance: specialization transforms into specialization.

And if you are a fan of "Liskov's substitution principle", you can see that a Pair<A1, B1> can always be used ("substitute") where a Pair<A, B> is required.

Now the opposite case, contravariance. Suppose we have two functions declared like this:

B f(A a);
B f1(A1 a1);

(I use Java syntax; the two lines above mean that both functions return B).

Which one can replace which? See, f1 cannot be used instead of f: what if we pass something that is not A1? f1 does not know what to do with it. But the opposite is okay: we can always use f where f1 is required: any A1 can be viewed as an A.

When we deal with object methods, not just plain functions, one hidden parameter is always present: the object itself. So that a method declared as

class A {
C f(B b);

actually is a function defined on pairs (A, B), and takes values in C. This function is contravariant in both parameters. Contravariance in the first (hidden) parameter is an essential part of OOP. Take a look at the following code snippet:

class A1 extends A {
C f(B b) {
println(getClass().getName() + " called with " + b.getClass().getName());
A instanceOfA = new A1();

This is Java, and Java uses dynamic dispatch (that is, all methods are virtual), and so the method of A1 is called in place of method f of A. Method f of A is substituted with a method of A1; contravariance made it possible.

Note that, since a method is always contravariant on its owner object, all getters, for instance, are contravariant: a superclass can call them, and the owner object, which is an instance of a subclass, can substitute the superclass in any context.

(Many thanks to M.Abadi and L.Cardelli's "A Theory of Objects" for explaining the OOP part to me.)

Saturday, April 04, 2009

inheritance, delegation, decoration, gravitation

I think I have some ideas regarding what is the problem with inheritance and, specifically, multiple inheritance. Let's start with geometry.

A plain pedestrian perceives 2-dimensional space as some kind of lawn, where you can walk back and forth, and know your position by measuring the distance towards the fence. (That's like the Bible's universe, except that the Bible universe is 3d, 100 miles by 100 miles by 5 miles.) So people think, aha, I can describe the ball as a point in space, 10 feet from the back fence ('x'), 30 feet from the left fence ('y').

Then 3d comes into the picture. We programmers don't deal with 3d. We deal with element's position in the window. But there's 3d out there. And the third dimension is spectacularly different. If you place a point somewhere, it will fall to the surface. The height from which it falls is called 'z'. It is like the other two coordinates, but it's different, because it falls if you don't hold it. So the point in space is the point on the lawn decorated by the height at which it is currently held. Be real, the force of gravitation will drag it to the surface anyway, it is not natural for an average point to have a height.

In your code you write it like this:

class Point {
double x;
double y;

class ThreeDPoint extends Point {
double z;

The software design purists tell us that we should write

class ThreeDPoint {
Point point;
double z;

This way we won't be mixing the two kinds of points and, say, checking whether an instance of ThreeDPoint lies between two Points... even equality checking may be problematic, where the Point(1, 2).equals(ThreeDPoint(1, 2, 3)) but not vice versa. Josh Bloch told us in his books that equality should be symmetrical.

I don't know if you read in some other book that it does not make any sense to define equality for objects of different types. Let me try to show why. You have one function that takes user name and returns user age (doing some magic, like guessing that a Sue should be over 70 and a Ryan should be under 35); the other function takes an integer number and returns its decimal representation. Can you seriously discuss the idea of checking whether these two function can have a common value for a certain argument? (In a sense they actually can: a one-year-old Japanese boy named Ichi, for instance).

But let's return to the three-dimensional space. Now that we have successfully (double-successfully, since we have two solutions) defined a three-dimensional point, let's thing about rotating the coordinates. Not that we do it here on our flat Earth, but on the space station they do it all the time. Have you heard, they have no gravitation! There's no special 'z'; all three dimensions are made equal. And the idea that a three-dimensional point is some kind of extension of the idea of a two-dimensional point does not fly in space. What do you think is the location of, say, Mars? What is the height of Mars? Mars does not have height. Even our Earth does not have height.

To switch from one coordinate system to another we need to do what? Shift and rotate. Now it turns out that the three dimensions are made equal; the space is (actually it is not, but that's the latest news from astrophysics) homogeneous and isotropic (or else we would be able to save the energy, according to a certain theorem).

Our representation of a 3-d point as a decoration of a 2-d point just does not work.

For a mathematician I'll express it like this: R3 is isomorphic to Rx(R×R) but not equal. See the difference? For a programmer, it looks like this:

(x, y, z) can be modeled as (x, (y, z)), or as ((x, y), z), or as (y, (z, x)), or as ((z, 42), (y, 55, x)) - but they are all different things. Only gravitation was forcing us, earthlings, to think of (x, y, z) as of ((x, y), z).

There are relations between 2d and 3d, though. A 3d point can be projected to 2d. (x, y), and (x, z), and (y, z) are all projections to the appropriate planes.

But what I wanted to say is this. If you are thinking of decorating your class with some more attributes, think again. Probably what you actually need is another class with natural projections (they are called views in SQL) to your old class. We tend to think that some attributes are more "external" than the "internal" attributes. Say, an object id is in the heard of your design, right? Are objects "decorations" of their ids? We don't think so, do we?

Oh, and about the "diamond inheritance problem". Do you know how relational databases solve this problem? Check it out. It's called "normalization".

Sunday, March 15, 2009

Cursor vs Flyweight

It is a pretty frequent problem: you need a million instances (ok, a billion if you are on a larger machine), and all the data are available, but you are not sure about overloading your Garbage Collector (I'm talking about Java, but in C you also have to deal with pesky memory issues... I guess). Will the GC handle a million (or a billion) of records that just come and go?

A known Flyweight Design Pattern, in its Java incarnation, suggests to do this: create an instance and cache it in a WeakReferenceMap, as if the weakness of the reference saves any memory at any given moment. No; we still have to create all those instances:

for (Record r : allMyRecords) {
// do something
// forget about record r

A typical implementation would be like this:

RecordSet allMyRecords;


class RecordSet implements Iterable<Record> {
Iterator<Record> iterator() {
Record next() {
// get the record from somewhere and return it:
Record theRecord = new Record(...);
return theRecord;

Say, we assume that all the data are actually in memory, but have a different form, so that for a record class like

interface Record {
long id();
String firstName();
String lastName();
String phone();
String email();

we actually have some kind of storage that keeps the data:

Map<Long, String> names;
Map<Long, String> phones;
Map<Long, String> emails;

If we implement the class Record so that it stores first/last name, phone and email, we duplicate a lot of data; so maybe it would be enough to store just something, just an id, and retrieve the rest on demand. For this, we will have a more-or-less lightweight implementation:

class LightRecord implements Record {
long id;
String phone() { return phones.get(id);}
String email() { return emails.get(id);}
String firstName() { return names.get(id).split(" ")[0];} // not very smart
String firstName() { return names.get(id).split(" ")[1];} // not very smart either

So we will store at least million (a billion) longs, and probably more. Wasting our memory, even if GC takes care of it. On a cellphone you probably should not count on gc.

So what can we do? Here's a solution that does not take any extra memory. It's like a cursor. It points to an imaginary record. Of course this record changes all the time, so if you want to really save an instance, do it via copy constructor. Otherwise, use it and forget it:

class RecordSet implements Iterable<Record> {
long currentId;
Record currentRecord = new Record() {
String phone() { return phones.get(currentId);}
String email() { return emails.get(currentId);}
String firstName() { return names.get(currentId).split(" ")[0];}
String firstName() { return names.get(currentId).split(" ")[1];}
Iterator<Record> iterator() {
Record next() {
currentId = ...;
return currentRecord;

So, the only time a constructor is called is when the iterator is created. Neat, eh?

The solution is not new. It is probably 50 years old. It is just properly rephrased in Java.

Wednesday, January 07, 2009

Incrementally calculating factorsets (Java class)

Recently I encountered a problem of calculating a factorset, given a set and a binary relationship. If you ask wtf is binary relationship, it is a predicate defined on pairs of elements:
interface BinaryRelationship<X, Y> extends Predicate<Pair<X, Y>> {}

Well, of course Java does not have type variables, so that one cannot interchange these two definitions... poor, poor Java programmers, poor, poor me.

But anyway.

Oh, and if you ask wtf a factorset is, let me introduce.

A binary relationship R on set A is called reflexive if aRa for all a∈A.

A binary relationship R on set A is called symmetric if aRb => bRa for all a∈A, b∈A.

A binary relationship R on set A is called transitive if aRb && bRc => aRc for all a∈A, b∈A, c∈A.

Given a set A and a reflexive, symmetric, transitive binary relationship R on A, an equivalence class over R is any such subset A1 of A that first, if x∈A1 and y∈A1 then xRy, and second, if x∈A1 and xRy then y∈A1

Given a set A and a reflexive, symmetric, transitive binary relationship R on A, a factorset A/R is defined as a set of all equivalence classes over R.

Take integer numbers, and let nRm if n - m is divisible by 2. We'll have just two equivalence classes, odd numbers and even numbers. By the way, guess why two equivalence classes never intersect.


One can calculate a factorset even if the relationship is not symmetric, reflexive or transitive. Just produce a symmetric, reflexive transitive closure, and factor over it. The problem is, calculating a transitive closure may be costly. So, for practical reasons, I have implemented factorsets in a non-lazy way. And then I realized that, on some occasions, to provide the necessary relationship, I had to build a set of pairs, and then provide the relationship that checks if a pair is in that set, and then calculate the factorset that transitively closes the relationship. Pretty stupid, why not just do it incrementally?

That's how I got this class:

public static class FactorSet<X> {
Set<X> set;
Map<X, Set<X>> equivalenceClasses;

* Builds an initial factorset, given the domain set.
* @param set domain set.
public FactorSet(Set<X> set) {
this.set = set;
equivalenceClasses = new HashMap<X, Set<X>>();
for (X x : set) {
equivalenceClasses.put(x, Set(x));

* Builds a factorset of a given set, by the transitive closure of a given relationship.
* @param set base set
* @param r binary relationship
public FactorSet(Set<X> set,  BinaryRelationship<X, X> r) {

* Given a <code>BinaryRelationship r</code>, merges equivalent classes if they
* contain elements that are in <code>r</code>.
* @param r the binary relationship. Does not have to be symmetrical or transitive.
public void factorByRelationship(BinaryRelationship<X, X> r) {
for (X x1 : set) {
for (X x2 : set) {
if (x1 == x2) {
continue; // skip same value
if (equivalenceClasses.get(x1) == equivalenceClasses.get(x2)) {
continue; // skip same class
if (r.eval(x1, x2) || r.eval(x2, x1)) {
merge(x1, x2);

* Merges equivalence classes for two elements
* @param x1 first element
* @param x2 second element
public void merge(X x1, X x2) {
Set<X> class1 = equivalenceClasses.get(x1);
Set<X> class2 = equivalenceClasses.get(x2);
Set<X> merged = new HashSet<X>(class1);
for (X x3 : merged) {
equivalenceClasses.put(x3, merged);

* @return the latest version of factorset built here.
public Set<Set<X>> factorset() {
return new HashSet<Set<X>>(equivalenceClasses.values());

* @return the function from the domain set to the factorset.
public Function<X, Set<X>> asFunction() {
return Functions.forMap(equivalenceClasses);

* @return the domain set.
public Set<X> domain() {
return set;

Neat, right? Look at this unittest:
public void testFactorSet_incremental() {
Set<Integer> set = Set(1, 2, 3, 4, 5);
FactorSet<Integer> factorset = new FactorSet<Integer>(set);
factorset.merge(1, 3);
factorset.merge(3, 5);
factorset.merge(4, 2);
Set<Set<Integer>> expected = Set(Set(1, 3, 5), Set(2, 4));
assertEquals(expected, factorset.factorset());

(Don't get confused by the functional-programming style of set constructors. Just open The Scala Book, they do it everywhere!

If you find a better way to do this thing, please let me know.


Subscribe To My Podcast